1690 Brittain Road
Akron, OH 44310
THOMAS G DAVISON
43 ROCHE WAY
YOUNGSTOWN, OH, 44512
DR DAN D.D.S. INC
904 E SNYDER AVE
MONTPELIER, OH, 43543
DANIEL L WOODS D.D.S.
24525 DETROIT RD
WESTLAKE, OH, 44145
CEDAR FAMILY DENTAL CARE
1717 CLEVELAND AVE NW
CANTON, OH, 44703
While many younger patients in the dental care office are cooperative and manageable without the need for sedative drugs, there are a significant number of children who cannot tolerate dental care without the use of these techniques.
For older, mildly apprehensive children, the use of oral conscious sedation may prove effective during dental care. Drugs such as chloral hydrate, Vistaril, Phenergan and Versed are frequently used either alone or in combinations selected by the sedation dentist for dental care.
Inhalation conscious sedation, using nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, is also highly effective in a mildly apprehensive older child who is older than six years.
In some instances, the use of a physical restraint (known as a Papoose Board or PediWrap) may be necessary to minimize excessive movement (which could be dangerous) during dental care treatment.
Naturally, many younger children are not mature enough to understand the need for their cooperation during dental care treatment. In this situation, the techniques described above have little chance for success. Deep sedation or general anesthesia may be required for dental care treatment to be successfully provided.
When this is necessary, the sedation dentist will employ a highly trained and certified dentist anesthesiologist, medical anesthesiologist, or, in some cases, nurse anesthetist, whose sole responsibility is to ensure the safety of the child while the dental care is being done.
Dentists trained to administer general anesthesia have received a minimum of two years of specialized advanced training and have been certified by their state Board of Dental Examiners.
Monitoring devices, some of which evaluate breathing, blood pressure and heart rate, will be employed by the sedation dentist to help ensure the safety of the procedure.
All aspects of the child's medical history, including any drugs he/she may be taking, should be disclosed to the dentist before any dental care.
It is suggested that the parent ask the following questions of their dentist prior to signing an informed consent granting permission for the administration of conscious sedation, deep sedation or general anesthesia to a child:
The administration of local anesthetics (commonly known as Novocain) is needed whenever potentially painful dental care procedures are performed (even during conscious sedation dentistry and general anesthesia).
The administration of local anesthetics to children by a trained sedation dentist is extremely safe and represents the ideal means of providing comfortable dental care treatment.
The following are some of the procedures the doctor might use to make this procedure more comfortable for the child:
The duration of the numbness varies from drug to drug - some providing a short duration (two to three hours), with others remaining effective for up to twelve hours. The sedation dentist will select a drug for the child that is appropriate for the planned dental care procedure.
Since a child's tongue and/or lip may remain numb for several hours after the completion of their dental care treatment, the parent should carefully watch the child to prevent them from accidentally biting and injuring their lip or tongue during this period of time.
Properly administered, local anesthetics are safe and effective in almost 100% of younger patients. If a child is unable to tolerate the injection of the local anesthetic in their mouth, it may be necessary to use one of the techniques of conscious sedation, deep sedation or general anesthesia.
Local anesthetics can safely be administered by a trained sedation dentist to patients receiving sedation or general anesthesia during their dentistry visit.
By Stanley F. Malamed, DDS
All too frequently, a planned visit to the dentist is looked on with a degree of dread and foreboding. This is referred to as dental anxiety.
Dental anxiety is not unusual, for it is quite natural for a person to be uncomfortable when placed in a position in which they feel that they are vulnerable, as occurs in the dental chair.
It is important that a patient tell the doctor if they have any dental anxiety related to their planned dental treatment. Keeping their fears hidden can only lead to a much more unpleasant experience for the patient and, in more extreme circumstances, may even increase the likelihood of certain emergencies occurring, such as fainting.
Once the sedation dentist is aware of the patient's dental anxiety and fears, there are many ways in which they may be addressed. In some cases, simply discussing the planned procedure is all that is necessary to alleviate the patient's dental anxiety.
When this is not enough, other highly effective and safe sedation techniques can be used to alleviate dental anxiety. If the technique involves the administration of a drug, it is termed conscious sedation dentistry.
The most readily available routes of conscious sedation are: oral, inhalation, intravenous and intramuscular. For extremely fearful dental patients, general anesthesia may be required.
Many dentists will prescribe a sedative drug to be taken by mouth prior to the planned treatment. If the individual has an even greater degree of dental anxiety, the doctor may prescribe an oral conscious sedative to be taken at home one hour prior to going to sleep on the evening before the appointment.
If the drug is administered at home, it is IMPERATIVE that the patient NOT DRIVE A CAR to the appointment. Patients receiving oral conscious sedation are not permitted to drive a car or operate a motor vehicle for 24 hours following their appointment.
Commonly administered oral conscious sedatives include: Valium, Halcion, Dalmane, and Versed. Oral conscious sedation dentistry is most effective in the management of milder degrees of dental fear.
The use of inhalation conscious sedation (nitrous oxide and oxygen) has been a mainstay of sedation techniques in dentistry for generations and still represents the most frequently employed technique. Commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous oxide-oxygen is used by more than 35% of all U.S. dentists.
An advantage of this technique of inhalation conscious sedation is that most people receiving it recover promptly and may be permitted to leave the dental office unescorted and resume normal activities immediately.
Inhalation conscious sedation is most effective with mild to moderate degrees of dental anxiety.
Though not as readily available as other conscious sedation techniques, intravenous (IV) conscious sedation is a safe and highly effective technique for management of moderate to more severe levels of dental anxiety.
Sedation dentists who employ IV conscious sedation have received specialized advanced training and certification by their state Board of Dental Examiners.
Drugs administered intravenously are more effective than the same drugs taken orally. A major benefit of some of these IV drugs is amnesia.
The patient will have no memory of some, or even all, of the dental treatment. This will lead the patient to think they were asleep during the treatment when, in reality, they were awake, but comfortable, at all times.
During the procedure, monitoring devices will be attached to the patient. These devices monitor the effectiveness of one's breathing (pulse oximeter), blood pressure and heart rate, increasing the safety of the procedure.
Patients receiving IV conscious sedation are not permitted to leave the dental office unescorted at the conclusion of the procedure.
Less commonly employed for adult patients, intramuscular (IM) conscious sedation is a relatively effective technique for management of moderate levels of dental anxiety and fear.
IM conscious sedation is more often employed in the management of fearful children. Sedative drugs are injected into the muscle of the upper arm or the thigh, producing sedation in approximately 20 to 30 minutes.
Dentists using IM conscious sedation have received specialized advanced training and certification by their state Board of Dental Examiners and will employ the same monitors described in the IV conscious sedation section.
Though the techniques of conscious sedation described above effectively manage more than 90% of all fearful dental patients, some may require general anesthesia in order to relieve their dental anxiety during their dental treatment.
When general anesthesia is used, the sedation dentist will employ a person who is trained and certified in general anesthesia to manage the patient while the dentist carries out the dental treatment.
This person will be a dentist anesthesiologist, a medical anesthesiologist, or, in some cases, a nurse anesthetist, whose sole responsibility is to ensure the safety of the sleeping (unconscious) patient while the dentistry is being done.
Sleep dentists using general anesthesia have received a minimum of two years of specialized advanced training and have been certified by their state Board of Dental Examiners. Monitors will be employed to help ensure the safety of the procedure.
Not all dentists employ conscious sedation techniques to relieve dental anxiety. It is important for patients to voice concerns and dental fears with their dentist during their first visit to the office.
The dentist will seek to work out a treatment plan that will best accommodate the patients needs. In some situations it may be necessary to refer a patient to a doctor who has these techniques available.
By Stanley F. Malamed, DDS